Team Foundation Server [Manage User or Group in TFS)

Manage users or groups in TFS

For users to have access to your team project in Team Foundation Server (TFS), you need to grant them access. If you’re an administrator for a small team and restricting access isn’t important, simply add your team members to TFS.

However, if you need to grant access to a large number of users who perform different roles within the team, then the recommended practice is to create Windows or Active Directory groups, add these groups to TFS groups, and add the same groups to grant access to additional resources.

Steps to manage users and groups in TFSThe last three steps are optional. You only have to grant permissions for reports or the project portal if your team project has been provisioned with SQL Server Reporting Services or a SharePoint site. Also, you only have to change access levels if you need to enable an entire group to access premium features or if you want to enable stakeholders or non-licensed users limited access.

How TFS manages access

If you need to make sure that the right users have the correct access or permissions to features and functions, it helps to understand that TFS controls access through three inter-connected functional areas:

  • Access level management controls access only to features provided through TWA, the TFS web application. Based on their user license, administrators grant access to standard, full, or limited set of features. For licensing information, see, Visual Studio and MSDN Licensing Whitepaper.
  • Membership management supports adding individual Windows user accounts and groups to default TFS groups. Also, you can create TFS groups. Each default TFS group is associated with a set of default permissions. All users added to any TFS group are added to the Valid Users group. A valid user is someone who can connect to the team project.
  • Permission management controls access to specific functional tasks at different levels of the system. Object-level permissions set permissions on a file, folder, build definition, or a shared query. Permission settings correspond to Allow, Deny, Inherited allow, Inherited deny, and Not set.

Each functional area uses groups to simplify management across the deployment. You add users and groups through the TFS web service administration pages. Permissions are automatically set based on the TFS group that you add users to, or based on the object, project, collection, or server level to which you add groups. On the other hand, access level management controls access for all users and groups at the server level.

TFS access, membership, and permission managementNotes:

  • Standard Features: Includes access to the Home, Code, Work, Build, and administrative pages in Team Web Access (TWA). Go here to learn more about access levels.
  • AD: Active Directory. You can create local groups or Active Directory groups to manage your users. If you decide to use groups, make sure that membership in those groups is limited to TFS users. Because group membership can be altered by their owners at any time, if those owners did not consider TFS when they created those groups, their changes to membership can cause unwanted side effects within TFS.

Here’s what you need to know about permission settings:

  • Allow or Deny explicitly grants or restricts users from performing specific tasks, and are usually inherited from group membership.
  • Not set implicitly denies users the ability to perform tasks that require that permission, but allows membership in a group that does have that permission set to take precedence, also known as Inherited allow and Inherited deny.
  • For most groups and almost all permissions, Deny trumps Allow. If a user belongs to two groups, and one of them has a specific permission set to Deny, that user will not be able to perform tasks that require that permission even if they belong to a group that has that permission set to Allow.

    For members of the Project Collection Administrators or Team Foundation Administrators groups, Deny doesn’t trump Allow. Permissions assigned to these groups take precedent over any Deny set within any other group to which that member might belong.

  • Changing a permission for a group changes that permission for all users who are granted that permission through their membership in that group. In other words, depending on the size of the group, you might affect the ability of hundreds of users to do their jobs by changing just one permission. So make sure you understand the impact before you make a change.

Two useful tips for understanding the effects of change: The Member of tab shows the groups that an individual user or group belongs to. You can also hover over an inherited permission, and a Why? icon will appear. If you choose it, a dialog box will open with more information.

Security page, Contributor role, permissions

Set up groups for use in TFS deployments

Managing users in TFS is much easier if you create Windows or Active Directory groups for them, particularly if your deployment includes SharePoint Foundation and SQL Server Reporting Services.

Users, groups, and permissions in Team Foundation Server deployments

Team Foundation Server, SharePoint Products, and SQL Server Reporting Services all maintain their own information about groups, users, and permissions. To make managing users and permissions across these programs simpler, you can create groups of users with similar access requirements in the deployment, give those groups appropriate access in the different software programs, and then just add or remove users from a group as needed. This is much easier than maintaining individual users or groups of users separately in three separate programs.

If your server is in an Active Directory domain, one option is to create specific Active Directory groups to manage your users, like a group of developers and testers for all projects in the team project collection, or a group of users who can create and administer projects in the collection. Similarly, you can create an Active Directory account for services that can’t be configured to use the Network Service system account as the service account. To do so, create an Active Directory account for SharePoint Foundation and as the read-access data source account for reports in SQL Server Reporting Services.

Important note Important
If you decide to use Active Directory groups in TFS, consider creating specific ones whose purpose is dedicated to user management in TFS. Using previously existing groups that were created for another purpose, particularly if they are managed by others who are not familiar with TFS, can lead to unexpected user consequences when membership changes to support some other function.

The default choice during installation is to use the Network Service system account as the service account for Team Foundation Server and SQL Server. If you want to use a specific account as the service account for security purposes or other reasons, such as a scaled-out deployment, you can. You might also want to create a specific Active Directory account to use as the service account for SharePoint Foundation and as the data source reader account for SQL Server Reporting Services.

If your server is in an Active Directory domain but you don’t have permissions to create Active Directory groups or accounts, or if you’re installing your server in a workgroup instead of a domain, you can create and use local groups to manage users across SQL Server, SharePoint Foundation, and Team Foundation Server. Similarly, you can create a local account to use as the service account. However, keep in mind that local groups and accounts are not as robust as domain groups and accounts. For example, in the event of a server failure, you would need to recreate the groups and accounts from scratch on the new server. If you use Active Directory groups and accounts, the groups and accounts will be preserved even if the server hosting Team Foundation Server fails.

For example, after reviewing business requirements for the new deployment and the security requirements with the project managers, you might decide to create three groups to manage the majority of users in the deployment:

  • A general group for developers and testers who will participate fully in all projects in the default team project collection. This group will contain the majority of users. You might name this group TFS_ProjectContributors.
  • A small group of project administrators who will have permissions to create and manage projects in the collection. You might name this group TFS_ProjectAdmins.
  • A special, restricted group of contractors who will only have access to one of the projects. You might name this group TFS_RestrictedAccess.

Later on, as the deployment expands, you might decide to create other groups.

To create a group in Active Directory

  • Create a security group that is a local domain, global, or universal group in Active Directory, as best meets your business needs. For example, if the group needs to contain users from more than one domain, the universal group type will best suit your needs. For more information, see Create a New Group (Active Directory Domain Services).

To create a local group on the server

  • Create a local group and give it a name that will quickly identify its purpose. By default, any group you create will have the equivalent permissions of the Users default group on that computer. For more information, see Create a local group.

To create an account to use as a service account in Active Directory

To create a local account to use as the service account on the server

  • Create a local account to use as the service account and then modify its group membership and other properties according to the security requirements for your business. For more information, see Create a local user account.

Add users to team projects

As roles and responsibilities change, you might need to change the membership or permission levels for individual members of a team project. This is particularly true if your project depends on resources that use SQL Server Reporting Services or SharePoint Products because permissions for those resources are managed separately.

If all you want to do is add a user to an existing team in TFS, and you don’t have to worry about specific permissions for other resources, skip this topic and simply add them to a team.

Permissions are different than access levels. Access levels control what features are visible to users in Team Web Access, and are dependent on user licenses; permissions control a user’s ability to use features across TFS. If you’re just trying to give someone access to a team room or to Agile portfolio management and test case management features, you’ll want to change access levels, not permissions.

Verify your permissions in TFS

Before you change permission levels for others, make sure that you have the right level of permissions.

  1. Open the administrative context for your team project. Settings icon
  2. In the Security tab, under users, find your own name, and look at what groups you belong to and what permissions you have.
  3. If you aren’t a project administrator, you need to be. Find someone who is, and have them add you:

    You can add more than one person at a time

  4. If you need to make changes at the team level, change your context to the team overview. If you aren’t a team administrator, you can add yourself if you’re already a project administrator. Otherwise, have someone add you.

    Team administrators do not have to be team members

  5. Similarly, if you need to add users to SharePoint Products or SQL Server Reporting Services, make sure that you have the required permissions. For reporting, you must be either a member of the local Administrators group on the report server or be a member of a group specifically created to add users. The requirements for SharePoint Products are more complex. For more information about SharePoint 2013, go here.

Add users to a project in Team Foundation Server

  1. Open Team Web Access and navigate to the project where you want to add users or groups.

    Select team project from TFS home pageTip: Managing user access to TFS is much easier if you add user groups, not individual users. Learn how to Set up groups for use in TFS deployments.

    Choose the gear icon Settings icon to open the administration context for the project, and then navigate to the Security tab.

  2. In Groups, choose one of the following:
    • To add users who will require minimal access to the project, choose Readers.
    • To add users who will contribute fully to this project, choose Contributors. By default, the team group created when you created the project is included as a member of the Contributors group, so you could choose to add the new user as a member of the team instead, and the user would automatically inherit Contributor permissions. For more information, see Add team members to a team.
    • To add users who will act as project leads, choose Project Administrators.

    After you have chosen one of those groups, add a user or a user group.

    Choose the team project group and add members

  3. In Identities, specify the name of the user or group you want to add.

    Account entry box on Add a user or group dialog

    Tip Tip
    The first time you add a user or group to Team Foundation Server, you cannot browse to it or check the friendly name. After the identity has been added once in Team Foundation Server, you can just type the friendly name.
  4. Depending on the user, you might want to customize their permissions for other functionality in the project, such as areas and iterations or shared queries. You can also control access to projects, version control, build, and work items; learn how in Restrict access in TFS.

If your TFS deployment is integrated with SharePoint Foundation, you’ll need to manage membership in the SharePoint groups to grant permissions to the team project portal for your TFS users.

Add users to SharePoint Foundation

  1. Open your project portal. (If you’re not sure what the URL is, open Team Explorer, choose Settings, and then choose Portal Settings. The URL for the portal is listed.)
  2. Choose Share, and add users or user groups to the appropriate SharePoint groups.

    Choose the SharePoint group and add users

    • To add users who will require minimal access to the project, choose Readers.
    • To add users who will contribute fully to this project, choose Contributors.
    • To add users who will act as project leads, choose Full Control.

For more information about users and groups in SharePoint Products, go here.

If your TFS deployment is integrated with SQL Server Reporting Services, you’ll need to manage users in the appropriate SQL Server Reporting Services groups, or they won’t be able to view or edit those reports.

Add users to SQL Server Reporting Services

  1. Open Internet Explorer or another browser compatible with Reporting Services administration, and navigate to the following address, where ReportServer represents the name of the server that is running SQL Server Reporting Services:

    http:// ReportServer /Reports/Pages/Folder.aspx

  2. On the Home page, choose Folder Settings, and in Security, choose New Role Assignment and add users.
    • To add users who can act as readers of or contributors to the project, select the Browsers check box.

      Click or tab to selection and spacebar to check

    • To add users who will act as project leads, select the Team Foundation Content Manager check box.

      Choose the role assignment for the user or group

If you’re a member of Team Foundation Administrators, you can verify what features are available for your users by default, and see whether any users are members of groups that have access outside of the default level.

Verify features available for a user or group of users

  1. Open Team Web Access in administration mode, and choose Control Panel to navigate to the top-level administration context.
  2. Choose the Access levels tab.
  3. Choose the name of each license group in turn, and review the following information:
    • Which licensing group is set as the default group for the deployment. That group name will be followed by (Default). This is the group that all users of your deployment of Team Foundation Server will be assigned to by default.
    • Whether the user for whom you are determining licensing levels is a member of a different licensing group than the default group. If so, review the description of the features of that licensing group to better understand what features are and are not available to that user.
  4. To review the licensing group membership of all users in the deployment at once, choose Export Audit Log. The membership information will be exported to a comma-delimited file. Save or open the file.

Change access levels

Access levels allow groups of users to access features in Team Web Access (TWA) based on their license level when working in an on-premises deployment of Team Foundation Server (TFS). Certain features, such as test case management and team rooms, require Full access.

You only set access levels for on-premises TFS. For Visual Studio Online, account licenses control access to premium features.

As an administrator, you assign users or groups of users to one of the three levels of access—standard, full, and limited—based on the license that each user has.

Access level Required license level
Standard TFS client-access license (CAL).
Full One of these MSDN subscriptions: Visual Studio Ultimate with MSDN, Visual Studio Premium with MSDN, or Visual Studio Test Professional with MSDN.
Limited No license required. Assign Limited access to customers or stakeholders that you want to collaborate with but who aren’t on your team.

You can find out more about licensing from the Visual Studio and MSDN Licensing White Paper.

Add a user or group to an access level

If you’re managing access for a large group of users, a best practice is to first create either a Windows group or TFS group and add individual accounts to those groups.

  1. From the TFS home page (for example, http://myserver:8080/tfs), go to the server administration page.

    Go to the administration page

  2. Select the level and then add the user or group.

    Add the user or groupIf you don’t see the Access levels tab, you aren’t a TFS administrator and don’t have permission. Here’s how to get permission.

Quick reference to access levels and features

The following table indicates which features users can access based on their access level or Visual Studio Online license level. This information depends on your product version and is subject to change. For a full comparison of products and features, go here.

Feature areas On-premises TFS Visual Studio Online
Limited Standard Full Stakeholder Basic and Professional (1) Advanced MSDN Subscription
View my work items check mark check mark check mark check mark check mark check mark check mark
Standard Features (2) check mark check mark check mark check mark check mark
Version control using either Team Foundation version control or Git-based repositories check mark check mark check mark check mark check mark
Work item tracking check mark(3) check mark check mark check mark(3) check mark check mark check mark
Agile Planning Tools (4) check mark check mark check mark(5) check mark(5) check mark check mark
Agile Portfolio management check mark check mark(5) check mark(5) check mark check mark
Work item charting check mark(5) check mark check mark(5) check mark check mark
Build Automation check mark check mark check mark check mark check mark
Web-based Test Management check mark check mark check mark
Request and manage feedback check mark check mark check mark
Team rooms check mark check mark check mark
Home page administrative links check mark check mark check mark check mark check mark
Administer accounts, team projects check mark check mark check mark check mark check mark


  1. Visual Studio Online Professional includes support for Office 365 business apps and the ability to work in one IDE to create solutions for the web, desktop, cloud, server, and phone.
  2. Standard Features include access to these hubs: Home, Code, Work, and Build. And, it includes access to administrative pages that support managing teams, membership, permissions, area and iterations, sprint schedules, and alerts.
  3. With Limited access, users can create and modify only those work items that the user creates and can query on their own work items only. With Stakeholder access, users can create and modify all work items, and can create and save queries on all work items under their My Queries folder.
  4. Agile Planning Tools include Agile Kanban and task boards and backlog and sprint planning.
  5. Read-only.
Standard access

With standard access, you can manage work in a product backlog

Changing velocity changes forecast lines…configure sprints with their own backlogs and task boards…

The sprint backlog shows items, tasks, and bugs…and view work in progress on the Kanban board.

View of the Kanban board

Full access

Full access includes access to everything included with Standard access, plus additional features.

For example, with Full access, you can work with portfolio backlogs.

Drill down to backlog items, bugs, and tasksYou also have access to team rooms.

Team room with messages and links to eventsAnd you can use the test case management tools.

New button in the test plan explorer paneYou can author charts to help your team visualize progress.

ALM_MC_DashboardYou can also request and manage feedback from customers.

Request feedback link on Home page

Limited access

Users who have limited access can create work items and edit the work items that they created, but they don’t have access to any other pages. This is also referred to as Work Item Only View. Here’s what limited access looks like.

View work items that you have created

To add a group of users to Limited access

  1. Create either a Windows group or TFS group.
  2. Add the user accounts to the group you just created.
  3. Add the group to Limited access.

    Limited access level, Add Windows user or group

Permissions and access levels

Of course, none of these levels of access expose information that you don’t have permission to view. Make sure your users have both the permissions and the access levels they need. If they’re members of the team, then they probably have the right permissions to use full and standard access.

Restrict access in TFS

Sometimes you don’t want all users in your deployment to have visibility into all projects in that deployment. By default, users who have permissions to access one project within a collection can view other projects within that collection, even if they don’t have permissions to modify work items or perform other actions in that project. If you want to restrict a particular group to just one project in the collection, you must take extra steps.

Restricting access to projects in the deployment

In Team Foundation Server, permissions explicitly set to Deny generally take precedence over permissions set to Allow. There are exceptions to this, but they generally don’t apply to user groups (and you can read more about these exceptions in Team Foundation Server permissions). So if you want to restrict a particular group from viewing a particular project, you must(1) create a specific Team Foundation Server group in that project, (2) add that restricted group to that project-level group, and then (3) explicitly set the View project-level information permission to Deny for that Team Foundation Server group. In other words, you specifically create a group for the users you don’t want to view a project, add that group to the project you don’t want them to view, and then set permissions on that group to restrict the users in that group from viewing that project. It’s a little counterintuitive, but it works!

  1. Open Team Web Access (TWA), change views to the administration context for the project by choosing the gear icon Settings icon, and choose the Security tab.
  2. On the Groups tab, create a TFS group.

    Create TFS Group link on Security admin pageThe CREATE NEW TEAM FOUNDATION SERVER GROUP window opens.

  3. In Group Name, specify a name for this group, such as “Reviewers.” Optionally, type a description for this group, and then choose OK.

    Create the Reviewers TFS groupThe group you just created appears in the list of TFS Groups. Make sure that it is highlighted in the list, and then choose the Members tab.

  4. Choose Add user.

    The ADD A WINDOWS USER OR GROUP window opens.

    Account names in Add a window or user group

  5. In Identities, specify the name of the group you want to add and save your changes.

    Add a group to the list of TFS Groups

  6. Choose the Permissions tab. In the permissions list, toggle the value of View project-level permission to deny, and then choose Save Changes.

Set administrator permissions for team project collections

In TFS, each team project collection is its own grouping of projects that can share reports, work items, and other items, all stored in a single database. Project collection administrators maintain the collection and administer permissions and security for other roles at the collection level.

Add a collection administrator in Team Foundation Server

  1. Open Team Web Access and switch to administration mode by choosing the gear icon Settings icon.
  2. Navigate to security at the collection level, and add a member to Project Collection Administrators.

    Navigate by clicking or tabbing

Add a user as a site collection admin in SharePoint Foundation

If your deployment is integrated with SharePoint Products, add team project collection administrators to the site collection administrators group in SharePoint Products. Skip this procedure if your deployment does not integrate with SharePoint.

  1. Open SharePoint Central Administration.
  2. Grant permissions that are appropriate for this user at the farm or the Web application level, depending on your security needs.

    For optimum interoperability, consider adding users of the Project Collection Administrators group to the Site Collection Administrators group in SharePoint Products.

    Follow guidance for your version of SharePoint

Add users in Reporting Services

If your deployment is integrated with a report server, add team project collection administrators to the Team Foundation Content Manager group in SQL Server Reporting Services. Skip this procedure if your deployment does not integrate with a report server.

  1. Open Internet Explorer running as an administrator.
  2. In the Address bar, specify the following URL, where ReportServer is the name of the server that is running Reporting Services: http://ReportServer/Reports/Pages/Folder.aspx
    Important note Important
    If you are using a named instance, you must include its name in the path of the reports. You use the following syntax, where ReportServer is the name of the report server for Team Foundation and InstanceName is the name of the instance of SQL Server: http://ReportServer/Reports_InstanceName/Pages/Folder.aspx
  3. On the Home page, choose Folder Settings, and add the user by granting them the Team Foundation Content Manager role as a new role assignment.

    Click and choose, or tab, spacebar, and enter

Set administrator permissions for Team Foundation Server

To perform system maintenance, schedule backups, add functionality, and do other tasks, administrators in Visual Studio Team Foundation Server (TFS) must be able to configure and control all aspects of TFS. That’s why TFS administrators require administrative permissions in the software programs that TFS interoperates with. You can quickly grant these permissions to administrators by adding them to the Team Foundation Administrators group in Team Foundation Server (TFS). However, you should only grant this level of permission to the minimum number of users needed to maintain TFS.

  1. On the application-tier server, add the user to the local Administrators group.

    Follow instructions for your operating system

  2. Open the administration console and add a console user.

    Click or tab, then input username

  3. Review the progress to make sure that the user account is added to all aspects of the deployment, including SharePoint and reporting resources.

    Review progressIf you’re running a standard single-server deployment, or a multi-server deployment without SharePoint or reporting, that’s it! However, if you have multiple application tiers, you’ll need to repeat these two steps on every application tier server. And if you have SharePoint or reporting on other servers, you might need to manually add administrative users to those products separately.

To grant administrative permissions in SharePoint Foundation

  1. On the server that is running SharePoint Products, open SharePoint Central Administration.
  2. Grant permissions that are appropriate for this user at the farm or the Web application level, depending on your security needs.

    For optimum interoperability, consider adding users of the Team Foundation Administrators group to the following groups in SharePoint Products:

    • Farm Administrators
    • Site Collection Administrators group for all site collections that the deployment of Team Foundation Server uses

    Follow instructions for your version of SharePoint Follow guidance for your version of SharePoint

To grant administrative permissions in Reporting Services

  1. Start Internet Explorer.
  2. In the Address bar, specify the following URL, where ReportServer is the name of the server that is running Reporting Services: http://ReportServer/Reports/Pages/Folder.aspx
    Important note Important
    If you are using a named instance, you must include its name in the path of the reports. You use the following syntax, where ReportServer is the name of the report server for Team Foundation and InstanceName is the name of the instance of SQL Server: http://ReportServer/Reports_InstanceName/Pages/Folder.aspx
  3. Choose Folder Settings, and then choose New Role Assignment.
  4. Add the account name of the user or group to whom you want grant administrative permissions and grant them membership in the Team Foundation Content Manager role.

    Click and choose, or tab, spacebar, and enter


Team Foundation Server (TFS) Administration

Set up TFS on a server

ou can use a basic installation of TFS to share your code and improve collaboration with customers and team members. If you don’t already have TFS, you can set it up on your own server by following the steps in this topic: Install TFS, Install the build service, and Install Team Explorer. If you don’t want to manage your own server, you can use Team Foundation Service instead. If you’d rather install TFS in a different configuration, you can learn how in Team Foundation Server install guide.

Install TFS

  1. Download TFS. You can install TFS on a client or on a server operating system. For clients, use Windows 7 or Windows 8, 32-bit or 64-bit. For servers, you have to use 64-bit. Go here for the complete list of system requirements for TFS.

    If you install on a server operating system, you can add a SharePoint portal and SQL Server reporting later, even if you skip those features during initial installation.

  2. Use the Basic configuration wizard for a quick and simple installation.

    Use TFS basic

  3. After finishing, close the basic configuration wizard.

    TFS success!Once you’ve installed TFS, you might need to add antivirus exceptions. Read this KB article for more information.

  1. After finishing the basic configuration wizard, you can install the build service on the same server. The build service automates builds of your software projects. Launch the build service configuration wizard.

    Select TFS build install wizard

  2. Close the wizard after it finishes. Now your build server is ready to go.

    Build install wizard success

Although Team Explorer isn’t necessary for most administration tasks, it does have some administrative features, and it is the only way to create the team projects your software development teams will need. Installing it on the server is a convenient way to ensure that you can create projects whenever necessary without having to go to another computer.

  1. Browse the directory where you downloaded the setup files for Team Foundation Server, and open the Team Explorer folder.
  2. Find the vs_TeamExplorer application and run it.

You are ready to connect to TFS and start creating your first team projects!

Create a team project

Visual Studio 2013

You create a team project in Team Foundation Server (TFS) to establish a repository for source code and a place for teams to plan, track progress, and collaborate.

If you have a team project already, and want to start coding an application project, then see one of the following topics: Develop your app in Team Foundation version control, Get started using Git, or Creating Solutions and Projects.

If you don’t want to manage an on-premises server, you can create a team project using Visual Studio Online. This topic applies only to creating a team project when you have deployed TFS on-premises.

  1. If you’re not a member of the Project Collection Administrators Group, get added as one. To create team projects you must have the Create new projects permission set to Allow.
  2. Ask your TFS administrator about the following resources and get additional permissions as needed:
    • Which team project collection you should connect to when you create your team project? If you installed TFS using the Basic Configuration Wizard, you have only one project collection named DefaultCollection. Unless you work in an enterprise organization and will be supporting hundreds of team projects, you should add all your team projects to a single project collection. If you need to create additional collections, go here.
    • Has SQL Server Analysis Services and SQL Server Reporting Services been configured for the deployment? If so, ask your administrator to add you as a member of the Team Foundation Content Managers group on the server that hosts SQL Server Reporting Services. Without these permissions, you’ll be unable to create a team project.
    • Has a SharePoint Web application been configured for your deployment? If you want to configure a SharePoint portal when you create your team project, ask the SharePoint administrator to give you Full Control permissions on the server that hosts SharePoint Products. Otherwise, you can skip this step and configure a portal at a later time.
  3. From Team Explorer 2013, connect to the server and team project collection where you want to create your team project.

    Select team project link on the Connect page in Team ExplorerTeam Explorer is installed with Visual Studio. Or, you can install Team Explorer for free.

    You must connect from a client that is at the same version level as TFS. That is, you must connect to TFS 2013 from Team Explorer 2013.

    Connect to Team Foundation Server dialog box

    Tip Tip
    If you are running Team Explorer from a server that hosts SharePoint Products and SQL Server Reporting Services, you might need to run Visual Studio as an administrator.
  4. If it’s your first time connecting to TFS, you’ll need to add TFS to the list of recognized servers.

    Servers button on the Connect to Team Foundation Server dialog box. Add button on the Add/Remove TFS. Name of server in the Add TFS dialog box. OK button.

  5. Open the New Team Project Wizard.

    New link on Connect page (Team Explorer)

  6. Name the team project. Don’t specify more than 64 characters.

    Specify the Team Project Settings page in the New Team Project dialog boxAnd, note that after you’ve created a team project, you can’t change its name.

  7. Choose a process template. For a comparison of the default process templates, see Work with team project artifacts.

    Select a Process Template page in the New Team Project dialog box

  8. Choose your source control system.

    Specify Source Control Settings page in the New Team Project dialog boxNot sure which system to use? Learn more here.

  9. Unless your team project collection is configured to support a SharePoint project portal, you’re done.

    Confirm Team Project Settings page in the New Team Project dialog boxIf the Next button is active, you can configure your project portal.

    If the wizard encounters a problem, you’ll receive an error message and a link to the project creation log. Review the log for specific errors and exceptions. See Q & A later in this topic for additional information.

  10. When you’re finished, you can see your team project in Team Explorer. You can also choose the Web Access link to connect to your team project using the Team Web Access.

Add team members to a team

Visual Studio 2013

Members of a team project can contribute to source control, work item tracking, and other team activities. If you don’t yet have a team project, create one. To add teams to a team project, go here.

Add users or groups

  1. If you’re not yet an administrator, get added as a team administrator. Only administrators can add members to a team or team project.
  2. On the TFS home page, choose your team or team project. If you don’t see your team project listed, use Browse all to select it.

    Select team project from TFS home page

  3. Manage members from the team home page.

    Manage members for a team or team project

  4. Add an individual Windows user account or a group.

    Choose to add Windows accounts or a TFS group

    Account entry box on Add a user or group dialog

    The first time an account is added to TFS, you must enter the full domain name and the alias. Then you can then browse for that name by display name as well as account name. To learn more, see Set up groups for use in TFS deployments.

    Tip Tip
    You must enter user and group names one at a time. However, after entering a name, the account is added to the list, and you can type another name in the Identities text box before choosing to save your changes.
  5. To verify that you’ve added all accounts, return to the home page and view the list of team members.

    Verify team member list

  6. Send the URL for your team project (for example, http://fabrikamprime:8080/tfs/DefaultCollection/Fabrikam%20Fiber%20Website) to the new team members so that they can start contributing to the team project.

By default, team members inherit the permissions afforded to members of the team project Contributors group. Members of this group can add and modify source code, create and delete test runs, and create and modify work items. They can collaborate with other team members and check in work to the team’s code base or collaborate on a Git team project.

Team member default permissions

Create a backup plan

  1. If you’re not an administrator for TFS, a member of the SQL Server System Administrators group, and (if your deployment uses SharePoint Products) a member of the Farm Administrators group, get those permissions now.

    In addition, the service account for TFS (TFSService) must have SQL Server Perform Back Up and Create Maintenance Plan permissions set to Allow on each instance of SQL Server that hosts the databases that you want to back up, and Full Control on the network share, folder, or storage device where the backups will be kept.

  2. Open the administration console for TFS and on the Scheduled Backups page, launch the wizard for creating a backup schedule.

    The Schedule Backups node in the console

  3. Backups must be stored on a network-accessible location, and both the account that configures the scheduled backup and the service account for TFS must have Full Control for that location. You can also choose how long a backup set will be kept and the file extensions used for backup types.

    Specify the network path for the backups

  4. If your server is configured with SMTP support, you can select email alerts for specific events. If not, all selections will be dimmed.

    Alerts are only available if SMTP is configured

  5. Choose between two default schedules, or create your own custom schedule.

    Choose a preconfigured or custom schedule

  6. Complete the wizard. If your deployment uses reporting, you will be prompted for a password in order to back up the encryption key for reporting.

  7. Once you’ve configured the scheduled backups, you can allow them to run as scheduled. You can also choose to take an immediate backup, which will back up your data right away while leaving your plan in place. This is particularly recommended if your scheduled backups will not occur for a significant amount of time, or if you do not already have a recent backup available.


Features of Windows 10

Configuring SonicWALL QoS

Quality of Service (QoS) adds the ability to recognize, map, modify, and generate the industry-standard 802.1p and Differentiated Services Code Points (DSCP) Class of Service (CoS) designators. When used in combination with a QoS capable network infrastructure, SonicOS QoS features provide predictability that is vital for certain types of applications, such as Voice over IP (VoIP), multimedia content, or business-critical applications such as credit card processing. To centrally manage the 802.1p-DSCP Mappings Table, GMS now provides a new configuration found under the path Policies > Firewalls > QoS Mapping.

Even the highest amounts of bandwidth ultimately are used to capacity at some point by users on the network. Being able to manage bandwidth to obtain the most efficient use from it is essential. Only QoS, when configured and implemented correctly, properly manages traffic and guarantees the desired levels of network service. Three concepts are central to the traffic management provided by QoS:

  • Classification

  • Marking

  • Conditioning

Each is described in the following sections.

Working with Classification

Classification is necessary as a first step to identify traffic that needs to be prioritized for optimal use. GMS uses access rules as the interface to classification of traffic. This provides fine control using combination of Address Object, Service Object, and Schedule Object elements, allowing for classification criteria as general as all HTTP traffic and as specific as SSH traffic from HostA to ServerB on Wednesdays at 2:12am.

GMS provides the ability to recognize, map, modify, and generate the industry-standard external CoS designators, DSCP and 802.1p protocols.

Once identified, or classified, it can be managed. Management can be performed internally by SonicWALL BWM, which is effective as long as the network is a fully contained autonomous system. Once external or intermediate elements are introduced, for example, foreign network infrastructures with unknown configurations, or other hosts contending for bandwidth (for example, the endpoints of the network and all entities in between are within your management. BWM works exactly as configured. Once external entities are introduced, the precision and efficacy of BWM configurations can begin to degrade.

Once GMS classifies the traffic, it then tags it to communicate this classification to certain external systems that are capable of abiding by CoS tags. The external systems then can participate in providing QoS to traffic passing through them.

Note: Many service providers do not support CoS tags such as 802.1p or DSCP. Also, most network equipment with standard configurations will not be able to recognize 802.1p tags, and could drop tagged traffic.

Note: If you wish to use 802.1p or DSCP marking on your network or your service provider’s network, you must first establish that these methods are supported. Verify that your internal network equipment can support CoS priority marking, and that it is correctly configured to do so. Check with your service provider – some offer fee-based support for QoS using these CoS methods.

Working with Marking

Once the traffic has been classified, if it is to be handled by QoS capable external systems, it must be tagged to enable external systems to make use of the classification, and provide correct handling and Per Hop Behaviors (PHB). An example of a QoS capable external system is a CoS-aware switch or router that might be available on a premium service provider’s infrastructure, or on a private WAN.

Originally, this was attempted at the IP layer (layer 3) with RFC 791’s three precedence bits and RFC 1394 ToS (type of service) field, but this was not widely used. Its successor, RFC 2474, introduced the more widely used DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point) which offers up to 64 classifications, in addition to user-definable classes. DSCP was further enhanced by RFC 2598 (Expedited Forwarding, intended to provide leased-line behaviors) and RFC 2697 (Assured Forwarding levels within classes, also known as Gold, Silver, and Bronze levels).

DSCP is a safe marking method for traffic that traverses public networks because there is no risk of incompatibility. At the very worst, a hop along the path might disregard or strip the DSCP tag, but it will rarely mistreat or discard the packet.

The other prevalent method of CoS marking is IEEE 802.1p occurs at the MAC layer (layer 3) and is closely related to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN marking, sharing the same 16-bit field, although it is actually defined in the IEEE 802.1D standard. Unlike DSCP, 802.1p will only work with 802.1p capable equipment, and is not universally interoperable. Additionally, 802.1p, because of its different packet structure, can rarely traverse wide area networks, even private WANs. Nonetheless, 802.1p is gaining wide support among Voice and Video over IP vendors, so a solution for supporting 802.1p across network boundaries (i.e., WAN links) was introduced in the form of 802.1p to DSCP mapping.

802.1p to DSCP mapping allows 802.1p tags from one LAN to be mapped to DSCP values by GMS, allowing the packets to safely traverse WAN links. When the packets arrive on the other side of the WAN or VPN, the receiving GMS appliance can then map the DSCP tags back to 802.1p tags for use on that LAN.

Working with Conditioning

Finally, the traffic can be conditioned or managed using any of the many policing, queueing, and shaping methods available. GMS provides internal conditioning capabilities with its Egress and Ingress Bandwidth Management (BWM). SonicWALL BWM is a perfectly effective solution for fully autonomous private networks with sufficient bandwidth, but can become somewhat less effective as more unknown external network elements and bandwidth, but can become somewhat less effective as more unknown external network elements and bandwidth contention are introduced.

To provide end-to-end QoS, business-class service providers are increasingly offering traffic conditioning services on their IP networks. These services typically depend on the customer premise equipment to classify and tag the traffic, generally using a standard marking method such as DSCP. GMS has the ability to DSCP mark traffic after classification, as well as the ability to map 802.1p tags to DSCP tags for external network traversal and CoS preservation. For VPN traffic, GMS can DSCP mark not only the internal (payload) packets, but the external (encapsulating) packets as well so that QoS capable service providers can offer QoS even on encrypted VPN traffic.

The actual conditioning method employed by service providers varies from one to the next, but it generally involves a class-based queueing method such as Weighted Fair Queuing for prioritizing traffic, in addition to a congestion avoidance method, such as tail-drop or Random Early Detection.

Working with 802.1p and DSCP QoS

The following sections detail the 802.1p standards and DSCP QoS.

Enabling 802.1P

GMS supports layer 2 and layer 3 CoS methods for broad interoperability with external systems participating in QoS enabled environments. The layer 2 method is the IEEE 802.1p standard wherein 3 bits of an additional 16 bits. inserted into the header of the Ethernet frame can be used to designate the priority of the fame, as illustrated in the following figure.

  • TPID: Tag Protocol Identifier begins at byte 12 (after the 6-byte destination and source fields), is 2 bytes long, and has an Ethertype of 0x8100 for tagged traffic.

  • 802.1p: The first three bits of the TCI (Tag Control Information – beginning at byte 14, and spanning 2 bytes) define user priority, giving eight (2^3) priority levels. IEEE 802.1p defines the operation for these 3 user priority bits.

  • CFI: Canonical Format Indicator is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for Ethernet switches. CFI is used for compatibility reasons between Ethernet networks and Token Ring networks. If a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not be forwarded as it is to an untagged port.

  • VLAN ID: VLAN ID (starts at bit 5 of byte 14) is the identification of the VLAN. It has 12 bits and allows for the identification of 4,096 (2^12) unique VLAN IDs. Of the 4,096 possible IDs, an ID of 0 is used to identify priority frames, and an ID of 4,095 (FFF) is reserved, so the maximum possible VLAN configurations are 4,094.

802.1p support begins by enabling 802.1p marking on the interfaces which you wish to have process 802.1p tags. 802.1p can be enabled on any Ethernet interface on any SonicWALL appliance including the TZ 170 Series, PRO 2040, PRO 3060, PRO 4060, and PRO 5060.

Note: 802.1p tagging is not currently supported on the PRO 1260.

Although Enable 802.1p tagging does not appear as an option on VLAN sub-interfaces on the PRO 4060 and PRO 5060, the 802.1q tags of VLAN subinterfaces. The behavior of the 802.1p field within these tags can be controlled by access rules. The default 802.1p capable network Access Rule action of None resets existing 802.1p tags to 0, unless otherwise configured.

Enabling 802.1p marking allows the target interface to recognize incoming 802.1p tags generated by 802.1p capable network devices, and will also allow the target interface to generate 802.1p tags, as controlled by Access Rules. Frames that have 802.1p tags inserted by GMS will bear VLAN ID 0.

802.1p tags will only be inserted according to access rules, so enabling 802.1p marking on an interface will not, at its default setting, disrupt communications with 802.1p-incapable devices.

802.1p requires the specific support by the networking devices with which you wish to use this method of prioritization. Many voice and video over IP devices provide support for 802.1p, but the feature must be enabled. Check your equipment’s documentation for information on 802.1p support if you are unsure. Similarly, many server and host network cards (NICs) have the ability to support 802.1p, but the feature is usually disabled by default.

Working with DSCP Marking

DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point) marking uses six bits of the eight bit ToS field in the IP header to provide up to 64 classes (or code points) for traffic. Since DSCP is a layer 3 marking method, there is no concern about compatibility as there is with 802.1p marking. Devices that do not support DSCP will simply ignore the tags, or at worst, they reset the tag value to 0.

The above diagram depicts an IP packet, with a close-up on the ToS portion of the header. The ToS bits were originally used for Precedence and ToS (delay, throughput, reliability, and cost) settings, but were later reused by the RFC 2474 for the more versatile DSCP settings. The following table shows the commonly used code point as well as their mapping to the legacy Precedence and ToS settings.



DSCP Description

Legacy IP Precedence

Legacy IP ToS (D, T, R)


Best Effort

0 (Routine – 000)


Class 1

1 (Priority – 001)


Class 1, Gold AF11

1 (Priority – 001)



Class 1, Silver AF12

1 (Priority – 001)



Class 1, Bronze AF13

1 (Priority – 001)

D, T


Class 2

2 (Immediate – 010)


Class 2, Gold AF21

2 (Immediate – 010)



Class 2, Silver AF22

2 (Immediate – 010)



Class 2, Bronze AF23

2 (Immediate – 010)

D, T


Class 3

3 (Flash – 011)


Class 3, Gold AF31

3 (Flash – 011)



Class 3, Silver AF32

3 (Flash – 011)



Class 3, Bronze AF33

3 (Flash – 011)

D, T


Class 4

4 (Flash Override – 100)


Class 4, Gold AF41

4 (Flash Override – 100)



Class 4, Silver AF42

4 (Flash Override – 100)



Class 4, Bronze AF43

4 (Flash Override – 100)

D, T


Express Forwarding

5 (CRITIC/ECP – 101)


Expedited Forwarding (EF)

5 (CRITIC/ECP – 101)

D, T



6 (Internet Control – 110)



7 (Internet Control – 111)

DSCP marking can be performed on traffic to and from any interface and to and from any zone type, without exception. DSCP marking is controlled by Access Rules, from the QoS tab, and can be used in conjunction with 802.1p marking, as well as with SonicOS internal bandwidth management.

DSCP Marking and Mixed VPN Traffic

Among the security measures and characteristics pertaining to them, IPSec VPNs employ anti-replay mechanisms based upon monotonically incrementing sequence numbers added to the ESP header. Packets with duplicate sequence numbers are dropped, as are packets that do not adhere to sequence criteria. One criterion governs the handling of out-of-order packets. GMS provides a replay window of 64 packets, i.e., if an ESP packet for a Security Association (SA) is delayed by more than 64 packets, the packet will be dropped.

This should be considered when using DSCP marking to provide layer 3 QoS to traffic traversing a VPN. If you have a VPN tunnel transporting a variety of traffic, some that is being DSCP tagged high priority (for example, VoIP), and some that is DSCP tagged low-priority, or untagged/best-effort packets over the best-effort ESP packets. Under certain traffic conditions, this can result in the best-effort packets being delayed for more than 64 packets, causing them to be dropped by the receiving SonicWALL’s anti-replay defenses.

If symptoms of such a scenario emerge (for example, excessive retransmissions of low-priority traffic), it is recommended that you create a separate VPN policy for the high-priority and low-priority classes of traffic. This is most easily accomplished by placing the high-priority hosts (for example, the VoIP network) on their own subnet.

Configuring QoS

You need to perform the following tasks to configure QoS:

  • Enable 802.1p tagging.

  • Create a QoS rule.

  • Configure QoS settings.

Enabling 802.1p Tagging

Before you begin to perform any QoS configuration tasks, you first need to enable your device to accept QoS values. To do that you have to enable the IEEE 802.1p tagging protocol. You enable protocols at the WAN interface level. To enable 802.1p tagging, perform the following steps:

  • Click on the Interfaces option in the Network menu. GMS displays the Interfaces list.

  • Click on the Configuration icon for the WAN interface. GMS displays the Edit Interface dialog box.

  • Click on the Advanced Tab. GMS displays the Advanced Tab.

  • Click on the Enable 802.1p tagging checkbox to place a check mark in the checkbox.

  • Click Update. GMS updates the WAN interface, allowing it to accept 802.1p tagging.

Creating a QoS Rule

The next step you must perform is you need to create a QoS rule for the WAN interface in the Access Rules dialog box. To configure a QoS rule, perform the following steps:

  • From the Firewall menu, click on the Access Rules option. GMS displays the Access Rules dialog box that contains various interfaces for which you can create an access rule.

  • Note the LAN > WAN rule bar.

  • Click Add Rule. GMS displays the Add Rule dialog box.

  • Click the QoS Tab.

  • In the DSCP Marking Settings region, click the DSCP Marking Action list box and select the Map option.

  • In the 802.1p Marking Settings region, click the 802.1p Marking Action list box and select the Map option.

  • Click Ok. GMS configures your WAN interface to accept traffic shaping values.

Configuring QoS Settings

Now that you have enabled the 802.1p protocol and created a specific QoS rule, you can create your QoS settings. To create QoS settings, perform the following steps:

  • Click on the QoS Settings option in the Firewall menu. GMS displays the QoS Mapping dialog box:

  • Click on the Configuration icon for any of the 802.1p Class of Service objects. GMS displays the class of service Edit QoS Mapping dialog box.

  • Select the following values from each list box in the dialog box.

    List Box


    L2 CoS

    Layer 2 Class of Service. If there’s a packet with a QoS bit set to 0, then you need to map it to the value in the To DSCP list box. The CoS

    To DSCP

    Indicates the value of the DSCP marking value that indicates the priority of the traffic.

    From DSCP Begin

    The lower limit of the range of values for marking that indicates the priority assigned to a packet traveling across the network.

    From DSCP End

    The upper limit of the range of values for marking that indicates the priority assigned to a packet traveling across the network.

sonic firewall-nsa


LED (Top to Bottom) Power LED: Indicates the SonicWALL NSA appliance is powered on.
Test LED: Flickering: Indicates the appliance is initializing. Steady blinking: Indicates the
appliance is in SafeMode. Solid: Indicates that the appliance is in test mode.
Alarm LED: Indicates an alarm condition.

X0 (LAN), X1 (WAN) Gigabit Ethernet ports for LAN and WAN connections.
X2-X5 (LAN) Gigabit Ethernet ports for other configurable Ethernet connections


Configuring Interfaces in Transparent Mode

Transparent Mode enables the SonicWALL security appliance to bridge the WAN subnet onto an internal interface. To configure an interface for transparent mode, complete the following steps:

Step 1 Click on the Configure icon in the Configure column forUnassigned Interface you want to configure. The Edit Interface window is displayed.

Step 2 Select an interface.

•If you select a configurable interface, select LAN or DMZ for Zone.
•If you want to create a new zone for the configurable interface, selectCreate a new zone. The Add Zone window is displayed.

Step 3 Select Transparent Mode from the IP Assignment menu.

Step 4 From the Transparent Range menu, select an address object that contains the range of IP addresses you want to have access through this interface. The address range must be within the WAN zone and must not include the WAN interface IP address. If you do not have an address object configured that meets your needs:

a. In the Transparent Rangemenu, select Create New Address Object.
b. In the Add Address Object window, enter a name for the address range.
a. For Zone Assignment, select WAN.
b. For Type, select:

    • Host if you want only one network device to connect to this interface.
    • Range to specify a range of IP addresses by entering beginning and ending value of the range.
    • Network to specify a subnet by entering the beginning value and the subnet mask. The subnet must be within the WAN address range and cannot include the WAN interface IP address.
c. Enter the IP address of the host, the beginning and ending address of the range, or the IP address and subnet mask of the network.
d. Click OK to create the address object and return to the Edit Interfacewindow.

Step 5 Enter any optional comment text in the Comment field. This text is displayed in the Comment column of the Interface table.

Step 6 If you want to enable remote management of the SonicWALL security appliance from this interface, select the supported management protocol(s):HTTP, HTTPS, SSH, Ping, SNMP, and/or SSH. To allow access to the WAN interface for management from another zone on the same appliance, access rules must be created.

Step 7 If you want to allow selected users with limited management rights to log directly into the security appliance through this interface, select HTTPand/or HTTPS in User Login.

Step 8 Click OK.
Note: The administrator password is required to regenerate encryption keys after changing the SonicWALL security appliance’s address.

Configuring Advanced Settings for the Interface

If you need to force an Ethernet speed, duplex and/or MAC address, click theAdvanced tab. The Ethernet Settings section allows you to manage the Ethernet settings of links connected to the SonicWALL. Auto Negotiate is selected by default as the Link Speed because the Ethernet links automatically negotiate the speed and duplex mode of the Ethernet connection. If you want to specify the forced Ethernet speed and duplex, select one of the following options from the Link Speed menu:

•1000 Mbps – Full Duplex ()
•100 Mbps – Full Duplex
•100 Mbps – Half Duplex
•10 Mbps – Full Duplex
•10 Mbps – Half Duplex

You can choose to override the Default MAC Address for the Interface by selecting Override Default MAC Address and entering the MAC address in the field. Check Enable Multicast Support to allow multicast reception on this interface.

Caution: If you select a specific Ethernet speed and duplex, you must force the connection speed and duplex from the Ethernet card to the SonicWALL security appliance as well.

Configuring the hosts connected to the Transparent interface:

The hosts connected to the X2 interface should be configured with the IP addresses within the Transparent Range. The default gateway could either be the upstream ISP router address or the SonicWALL WAN interface IP. Once the hosts are configured appropriately they will be able to go online with the IP address assigned to them without being NAT’ed. Conversely, the hosts can be reached from the WAN side of the SonicWALL with the IP address assigned to them provided a WAN > DMZ Allow rule exists.

Information Technology

Types of Computers

  • Supercomputer

The most powerful computers in terms of performance and data processing are the supercomputers. These are specialized and task specific computers used by large organizations. These computers are used for research and exploration purposes, like NASA uses supercomputers for launching space shuttles, controlling them and for space exploration purpose.

Uses of Supercomputer

In Pakistan and other countries Supercomputers are used by Educational Institutes like NUST (Pakistan) for research purposes. Pakistan Atomic Energy commission & Heavy Industry Taxila uses supercomputers for Research purposes.

Space Exploration

Supercomputers are used to study the origin of the universe, the dark-matters. For these studies scientist use IBM’s powerful supercomputer “Roadrunner” at National Laboratory Los Alamos.

Earthquake studies

Supercomputers are used to study the Earthquakes phenomenon. Besides that supercomputers are used for natural resources exploration, like natural gas, petroleum, coal, etc.

Weather Forecasting

Supercomputers are used for weather forecasting, and to study the nature and extent of Hurricanes, Rainfalls, windstorms, etc.

Nuclear weapons testing

Supercomputers are used to run weapon simulation that can test the Range, accuracy & impact of Nuclear weapons.

Popular Supercomputers

  •  IBM’s Sequoia, in United States
  •  Fujitsu’s K Computer in Japan
  •  IBM’s Mira in United States
  •  IBM’s SuperMUC in Germany
  •  NUDT Tianhe-1A in China

Mainframe computer

Although Mainframes are not as powerful as supercomputers, but certainly they are quite expensive nonetheless, and many large firms & government organizations uses Mainframes to run their business operations. The Mainframe computers can be accommodated in large air-conditioned rooms because of its size. Super-computers are the fastest computers with large data storage capacity, Mainframes can also process & store large amount of data. Banks educational institutions & insurance companies use mainframe computers to store data about their customers, students & insurance policy holders.

Popular Mainframe computers

  •  Fujitsu’s ICL VME
  •  Hitachi’s Z800
  • Minicomputer

Minicomputers are used by small businesses & firms. Minicomputers are also called as“Midrange Computers”. These are small machines and can be accommodated on a disk with not as processing and data storage capabilities as super-computers & Mainframes. These computers are not designed for a single user. Individual departments of a large company or organizations use Mini-computers for specific purposes. For example, a production department can use Mini-computers for monitoring certain production process.

Popular Minicomputers

  •  K-202
  •  Texas Instrument TI-990
  •  SDS-92
  •  IBM Midrange computers


Desktop computers, laptops, personal digital assistant (PDA), tablets & smartphones are alltypes of microcomputers. The micro-computers are widely used & the fastest growing computers. These computers are the cheapest among the other three types of computers. The Micro-computers are specially designed for general usage like entertainment, education and work purposes. Well known manufacturers of Micro-computer are Dell, Apple, Samsung, Sony & Toshiba.

Desktop computers, Gaming consoles, Sound & Navigation system of a car, Netbooks, Notebooks, PDA’s, Tablet PC’s, Smartphones, Calculators are all type of Microcomputers.

Usages Of Computers

Education :

Getting the right kind of information is a major challenge as is getting information to make sense. College students spend an average of 5-6 hours a week on the internet.Research shows that computers can significantly enhance performance in learning. Students exposed to the internet say they think the web has helped them improve the quality of their academic research and of their written work. One revolution in education is the advent of distance learning. This offers a variety of internet and video-based online courses.

Health and Medicine :

Computer technology is radically changing the tools of medicine. All medical information can now be digitized. Software is now able tocomputer the risk of a disease. Mental health researchers are using computers to screen troubled teenagers in need of psychotherapy. A patient paralyzed by a stroke has received an implant that allows communication between his brain and a computer; as a result, he can move a cursor across a screen by brainpower and convey simple messages.

Science :

Scientists have long been users of it. A new adventure among scientists is the idea of a “collaboratory”, an internet based collaborative laboratory, in which researchers all over the world can work easily together even at a distance. An example is space physics where space physicists are allowed to band together to measure the earth’s ionosphere from instruments on four parts of the world.

Business :

Business clearly see the interest as a way to enhance productivity and competitiveness. Some areas of business that are undergoing rapid changes are sales and marketing, retailing, banking, stock trading, etc. Sales representatives not only need to be better educated and more knowledgeable about their customer’s businesses, but also must be comfortable with computer technology. The internet has become a popular marketing tool. The world of cybercash has come to banking – not only smart cards but internet banking, electronic deposit, bill paying, online stock and bond trading, etc.

Recreation and Entertainment:

Our entertainment and pleasure-time have also been affected by computerization. For example:

i) In movies, computer generated graphics give freedom to designers so that special effects and even imaginary characters can play a part in making movies, videos, and commercials.

ii) In sports, computers compile statistics, sell tickets, create training programs and diets for athletes, and suggest game plan strategies based on the competitor’s past performance.

iii) In restaurants, almost every one has eaten food where the clerk enters an order by indicating choices on a rather unusual looking cash register; the device directly enters the actual data into a computer, and calculates the cost and then prints a receipt.


Various departments of the Government use computer for their planning, control and law enforcement activities. To name a few – Traffic, Tourism, Information & Broadcasting, Education, Aviation and many others.


There are many uses computers in Defence such as:

1) Controlling UAV or unmanned air-crafts an example is Predator. If you have cable I would recommend watching the shows “Future Weapons” and “Modern Marvels”. The show future weapon gives an entire hour to the predator.

2) They are also used on Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) that uses GPS and Computers to help the missile get to the target.

3) Computers are used to track incoming missiles and help slew weapons systems onto the incoming target to destroy them.

4) Computers are used in helping the military find out where all their assets are (Situational Awareness) and in Communications/Battle Management Systems.

5) Computers are used in the logistic and ordering functions of getting equipments to and around the battlefield.

6) Computers are used in tanks and planes and ships to target enemy forces, help run the platform and more recently to help diagnose any problems with the platforms.

7) Computers help design and test new systems.


In today’s technologically growing society, computers are being used in nearly every activity.

Recording Information

Official statistics keepers and some scouts use computers to record statistics, take notes and chat online while attending and working at a sports event.

Analyzing Movements

The best athletes pay close attention to detail. Computers can slow recorded video and allow people to study their specific movements to try to improve their tendencies and repair poor habits.


Many sportswriters attend several sporting events a week, and they take their computers with them to write during the game or shortly after while their thoughts are fresh in their mind.


While some scoreboards are manually updated, most professional sports venues have very modern scoreboards that are programmed to update statistics and information immediately after the information is entered into the computer.


Computers have aided in the design of safety equipment in sports such as football helmets to shoes to mouth guards

Policy Based Routing (PBR)

While dynamic routing protocols provide easy deployment, there will be situations in which more specific selection of routing paths can be advantageous. Cisco Policy Based Routing provides a flexible mechanism for network administrators to customize the operation of the routing table and the flow of traffic within their networks.

Cisco Policy Based Routing offers many advanced features, including selection and forwarding of traffic to discreet Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) instances, as well as Enhanced Tracking of the availability of next-hops.

Equal Access Example

The following example provides two sources with equal access to two different service providers. Packets arriving on asynchronous interface 1 from the source are sent to the router at if the router has no explicit route for the destination of the packet. Packets arriving from the source are sent to the router at if the router has no explicit route for the destination of the packet. All other packets for which the router has no explicit route to the destination are discarded.

access-list 1 permit

access-list 2 permit


interface async 1

ip policy route-map equal-access


route-map equal-access permit 10

match ip address 1

set ip default next-hop

route-map equal-access permit 20

match ip address 2

set ip default next-hop

route-map equal-access permit 30

set default interface null0

Differing Next Hops Example

The following example illustrates how to route traffic from different sources to different places (next hops), and how to set the Precedence bit in the IP header. Packets arriving from source are sent to the next hop at with the Precedence bit set to priority; packets arriving from source are sent to the next hop at with the Precedence bit set to critical.

access-list 1 permit

access-list 2 permit


interface ethernet 1

ip policy route-map Texas


route-map Texas permit 10

match ip address 1

set ip precedence priority

set ip next-hop


route-map Texas permit 20

match ip address 2

set ip precedence critical

set ip next-hop