IP Phone (VoIP)

IP Phone uses (Voice over Internet Protocol – VoIP) technologies for placing and transmitting telephone calls over an IP network, such as the Internet, instead of the traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN).



IP surveillance

IP surveillance is a digitized and networked version of closed-circuit television (CCTV). In an IP surveillance system, an IP camera records video footage and the resulting content is distributed over an IP (Internet protocol) network. 


Benefits of going digital

For the past 20 years, monitoring and surveillance applications have been served by analog technology.  CCTV has traditionally been recorded to VCRs (video cassette recorders), and because of its perceived ease of use and manageable price point, analog was probably the right choice at the time of purchase.  However, the rise of digital has laid bare analog’s many shortcomings.  Analog CCTV systems are generally maintenance intensive, offer no remote accessibility, and are notoriously difficult to integrate with other systems.  Despite these obvious deficiencies, the end user who has invested in cameras, cables, and more, and is satisfied with the current quality is right to ask, “Why buy new equipment?”

Implementing a digital system does not require throwing away those trusted (and already paid-for) cameras.  With IP-Surveillance, you can still use all the cameras, lenses, and cables in place through this step-by-step migration to digital technology.  And if this is not enough reason to seriously consider an upgrade, examine the TLV, or time-lapse video, recording component.  These systems are highly labor intensive because of the need to change tapes and perform system maintenance.  Tape wear and tear is an ever-present problem.  Furthermore, the actual quality of the images recorded is often unsatisfactory, particularly if used for official investigations.  With the introduction of digital video recorder (DVR) technology, the storage media are no longer dependent on operator intervention or tape quality.  And with IP-Surveillance technology, the video server and network server represent the next level of improvement by connecting existing cameras to the network with a video server and then storing the images on the network server.



Digital’s many benefits. With the spread of digital recording technology, its many advantages have become apparent:  ease of use, advanced search capabilities, simultaneous record and playback, no image degradation, improved compression and storage, integration potential, and so on.  But with digital technology as its core, IP-Surveillance provides all these advantages and many more:

Remote accessibility.  The main benefit from connecting those analog cameras to a network is that the user can now see surveillance images from any computer on the network—without the need and expense of additional hardware or software. If you have a port to Internet, you can securely connect from anywhere in the world to view a chosen facility or even a single camera from your surveillance system.  By using a Virtual Private Network (VPN) or the company intranet, you can manage password-protected access to images from the surveillance system.  Similar to secure payment over the Internet, a user’s images and information are kept secure and viewed only by approved personnel.

Unlimited, secure storage.  Store as many hours of images as you want—provided you have hard disk capacity.  And store and view images off-site in any location in cases where monitoring and storage are mission critical or need back up.

Flexible, pro-active image distribution.  Take snapshots of an intruder or incident and send by e-mail to police or appropriate authorities.  Also, police or other password-approved parties can log on to cameras and view activities around a user’s facilities.

Automatic alerts.  The video server can automatically send an e-mail with an alarm image to selected e-mail addresses, so the right people have the information they need to take timely action.

Total cost of ownership and performance.  At the beginning of this section, we listed the many advantages of digital technology, but it bears repeating that with no further need of time-lapse video equipment, no more tapes and no more tape changing and cataloging are required.  Maintenance costs go way down.  And while system performance and results markedly increase, total cost of ownership over time will continue to decrease.

IP-Surveillance provides all the superior functionality of digital technology, plus the tremendous benefits of increased accessibility, storage and distribution of images, and a superior cost-benefit picture.  At this point, analog owners are convinced it’s time to make the switch, but what factors bear consideration?

IpSurveillanceSolution     CCTV IP diagram

cisco Q&A

01. Which OSI layer provides mechanical, electrical, procedural for activating, maintaining physical link?

A.) Presentation

B.) Network


D.) Physical

E.) Transport


Answer: D

Explanation: Layer 1 the Physical layer performs this function.

202. Identify 2 characteristics of PPP?

A.) Uses LLC to establish the link

B.) Default serial encapsulation

C.) Support multiple layer 3 protocols

D.) Offers two types of authentication; PAP and CHAP

Answer: C D

Explanation: PPP is not the default encapsulation and uses LCP not LLC to establish the link.

It support multiple layer 3 protocols and supports authentication.

203. Identify 3 characteristics of a connection oriented protocol?

A.) Path determination

B.) Flow control

C.) Acknowledgements

D.) Uses hop count as metric

E.) 3 step handshake

Answer: B C E

Explanation: Connection oriented protocols must first establish the connection (3 step handshake), employ methods to acknowledge the receipt of data (acknowledgements) and slow down the flow of data if required (flow control).

204. What is the maximum hop count for IP RIP?

A.) Infinity

B.) 16

C.) 15

D.) 1

Answer:  C

Explanation: 15 is the maximum hop count, underscoring the size limitation of RIP.

205. What is Cisco’s default encapsulation method on serial interfaces?


B.) Cisco

C.) Q933a


Answer:  D

Explanation: Cisco’s implementation of HDLC is only compatible with Cisco routers. It is the default encapsulation type for serial interfaces.

206. Which of the following is a characteristic of a switch, but not of a repeater?

A.) Switches forward packets based on the IPX or IP address in the frame

B.) Switches forward packets based on the IP address in the frame

C.) Switches forward packets based on the MAC address in the frame

D.) Switches forward packets based only on the IP address in the packet

Answer: C A

Explanation: repeater regenerates the signal it receives, a switch makes decisions based upon MAC addresses to determine whether a frame should be forwarded. Repeaters forward all packets.

207. Ping uses which Internet layer protocol?





Answer: B

Explanation: Internet Control Message Protocol – ICMP is a management protocol and messaging service provider for IP. Its messages are carried as IP datagrams. ICMP is used in the

following events: Destination Unreachable – If a router cannot send an IP packet any further, it uses an ICMP echo to send a message back to the sender notifying it that the remote node is

unreachable. Buffer Full – If a routers memory buffer is full ICMP will send out a message to the

originator. Hops – Each IP datagram is assigned a path. This consists of hops. If it goes through the maximum number of hops, the packet is discarded and the discarding router sends an ICMP

echo to the host. Ping – Ping use ICMP echo message to check connectivity.

208. Which is true regarding store-and-forward switching method?

A.) Latency varies depending on frame-length

B.) Latency is constant

C.) It is default for all Cisco switches

D.) It only reads the destination hardware address before forwarding the frame

Answer:  A

Explanation: Store-and-Forward switching copies the entire frame into its buffer and computes the CRC. If a CRC error is detected, the frame is discarded, or if the frame is a runt (less than 64 bytes including the CRC) or a giant (more than 1518 bytes including the CRC). The LAN switch then looks up the destination address in its switching table and determines the outgoing interface. The frame is then forwarded to the outgoing interface. Cisco Catalyst 5000 switches uses the Store-and-Forward method. The problem with Store-and-Forward switching is latency is increased. Latency also varies with the size of the frame. The larger the frame, the more latency associated. This of course is due to the fact that the entire frame is copied into its buffer before being forwarded.

209. Which three of the following are true statements about connection-oriented sessions?

A.) The segments delivered are acknowledged back to the sender upon their reception

B.)Any segments not acknowledged the are retransmitted by the receiver

C.) A manageable data flow is maintained in order to avoid congestion, overloading and loss of any data

D.) Segments are sequenced back into their proper order upon arrival at their destination

Answer:  A C D

Explanation: Connection-oriented services are useful for transmitting data from applications that are intolerant of delays and packet re-sequencing. FTP and Telnet applications are based on connection-oriented services as well as some voice and video programs. Any segment that is not acknowledged by the received is retransmitted by the sender.

210. What does a metric of 16 hops represent when using RIP?

A.) Number of hops to the destination

B.) Destination unreachable

C.) Number of routers

D.) Bandwidth

Answer:  B

Explanation: Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance vector routing protocol that used hop count as its metric. The maximum hop count is 15, 16 hops is considered unreachable. RIP updates are broadcast every 30 seconds by default. RIP has an administrative distance of 120.

MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL.

MPLS Label
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
Label EXP: Experimental (QoS and ECN) S: Bottom-of-Stack TTL: Time-to-Live

MPLS uses a 32-bit label field that contains this information

– 20 bit label

– 3 bit experimental field (Cisco QOS)

– 1 bit bottom of stack indicator

– 8 bit TTL field

Labels can also correspond to other Parameters

  • Layer 3 VPN
  • Layer 2 circuit
  • Outgoing interface on egress router
  • QoS
  • Source Address

MPLS was designed to support forwarding of non-IP protocols as well


  • LSR(Label Switch Router ro Provide(P) Router
  • Edge LSR (E-LSR) or Provider Edge(PE) Router
  • Ingress E-LSR (Enpose)
  • Egress E-LSR (Dispose)
  • Customer Edge (CE) Router
  • Customer (C) Router


MPLS Database: FIB   and LFIB



Cisco Routers can be configured to disable MPLS TTL Propagation

MPLS Control Plane

* Control plane protocol used for MPLS Label information

IOS Troubleshooting tools

show A snapshot of what is occurring to monitor status. The show commands enable you to detect neighbors, spot performance issues, and isolate problems.
ping Determine end-to-end connectivity and reachability.
traceroute Hop-by-hop approach to finding the problem.
log Monitor and view messages that record real-time events, such as errors, warnings, and state transitions.
debug Use for troubleshooting traffic flow or misconfigurations; not for normal daily operations.

CCIE v5 Routing and Switching

Topics Added to the CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 Written Exam:
• Describe basic software architecture differences between IOS and IOS XE
• Identify Cisco Express Forwarding Concepts
• Explain General Network Challenges
• Explain IP, TCP and UDP Operations
• Describe Chassis Virtualization and Aggregation Technologies
• Explain PIM Snooping
• Describe WAN Rate-based Ethernet Circuits
• Describe BGP Fast Convergence Features
• ISIS (for IPv4 and IPv6)
• Describe Basic Layer 2 VPN – Wireline
• Describe Basic L2VPN – LAN Services
• Describe GET VPN
• Describe IPv6 Network Address Translation
Topics Added to the CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 Written and Lab Exams:
• Use IOS Troubleshooting Tools
• Apply Troubleshooting Methodologies
• Interpret Packet Capture
• Implement and Troubleshoot Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
• Implement EIGRP (multi-address) Named Mode
• Implement, Troubleshoot and Optimize EIGRP and OSPF Convergence and Scalability
• Implement and Troubleshoot DMVPN (single hub)
• Implement and Troubleshoot IPsec with pre-shared key
• Implement and Troubleshoot IPv6 First Hop Security